A block diagram showing three of mickey avalon stroke me the most basic system types is shown as Figure.3.
The program variables defining a field are shown. .
This scattered energy is shown as the bottom curve ( diffuse insolation ).
The heat transfer fluids with the lowest lol ph february patch operating temperature capabilities are heat transfer oils. .
Note that the most efficient heliostats are located opposite the sun.Six of these panels are for preheating the water and 18 for producing steam. .In some de signs as Solar One in Barstow, California, the south field heliostats are used only to preheat the water, which is subsequently turned into superheated steam in the rest of the receiver. .Figure.10b shows six 9kWe parabolic dish concentrators with Stirling engines attached to the receiver at the focus.An expression for calculation of the cosine of this half angle has been developed as Equation (8.49). .Figure.1 One of nine solar electric energy generating systems at Kramer Junction, California, with a total output of 354 MWe.In this section we discuss the modes of energy loss which make up the overall efficiency term col and then discuss how they are predicted. .If the heat transfer fluid were water/steam or molten nitrate salt rather than sodium, an area about twice that size would be required for the same power output and temperature because of the lower heat transfer capabilities of these fluids (Battleson, 198l).
Corrected error in Equation.10 (6/04) - Thanks Boudewijn van Leeuwen, The Netherlands Added Chapter 8 Concentrating Optics (10/03) We just added Chapter 6 describing flat-plate collectors (11/02) We have added Chapter 5 describing the performance and performance models of solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors.
For a clear day with 23-km visibility, the atmospheric transmittance is (10.6) where S is the slant range from heliostat to receiver in kilometers. .
Thanks Patrick Vielle, Switzerland (4/07).
Input Parameters for Program scram Variable Units Statement scram1 Number of field segments JMX - 210 Field azimuth ANG(I) radians 260 Inner radius RI(I) tower heights 300 Outer radius RO(I) tower heights 340 Total heliostat area AM m2 180 Mirror reflectance MR - 190 Mirror.The reader is referred to the.S.Vant-Hull (1978 A Cellwise Method for the Optimization of Large Central Receiver Systems, Solar Energy 30 (6 505.These were selected for their generality and universal availability. .If the absorbing surface converter ods to xls is inside a cavity, the effective absorptance (based on reflection back through the cavity aperture) increases to about.98.The heliostat focal length is approximately equal to the distance from the receiver to the farthest heliostat. .Figure.12 Local heliostat density as predicted by Equation (10.5) for radial-stagger field layouts.The function of a solar collector is simple; it intercepts incoming insolation and changes it into a useable form of energy that can be applied to meet a specific demand.In addition, wind can produce structural deflections, causing position errors.For a hazy day with only 5-km visibility, the atmospheric transmittance is (10.7) Although these expressions were derived for a specific site altitude, they are strongly dependent on the aerosol distribution at ground level (visibility) and only slightly dependent on site altitude.